What is the meaning of As-Samad? As-Samad is the One who furfills all of His creatures needs. He is independent, The self sufficient, in need of none of His creatures while All of His creatures need Him
As-Samad also means He is the Perfect One, in His Knowledge, His Power, His Wisdom, His ’Izzah (Honor and Might), His Sovereignty and in all His Attributes. That He is free from any such characteristics that does not befit Him.
The word Samad Linguistically in the Arabic language can refer to a few things
1) A leader who is obeyed amongst his people, the one whose sovereignty has reached its peak. 2) It is also said Samad is the one who does not have any cavity – that is without intestines nor abdomen etc. 3) It refers to one who does not need to eat or drink. 4) And the most common interpenetration of Samad is He who is betaken to by the creation of their needs, with the meaning that they incline to Him and they reach out for Him, and surrender their needs to Him. So it has the meaning of the everyone is in need of.
There is no contradiction in any of the apparent meanings rather we can combine between them all. 1) A leader who is obeyed, is there anyone to whom he must respond to or answer to? No. 2) No internal cavity? We as humans have internal cavity’s;, brains, lungs, stomach heart etc what are the functions of these organs? To help us stay live. Your stomach needs food, lungs need air etc we have them because we are in need of them, so someone who has no internal cavity suggests that… they have no needs/ not dependent on these things to stay alive 3) Likewise one who needs no food or drink is completely self efficient. 4) The one whom ALL depend upon and need while He needs nothing and no one.
Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said; These interpretations do not contradict one another in relation to Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, and as such we say that each of these meanings are affirmed due to the lack of contradiction among them. We interpret it with a comprehensive interpretation; we say As-Samad is the One Who is Perfect in His Attributes, the One whom all His creatures are in need of; they are dependent upon Him. Therefore, the tremendous meaning of the word As-Samad becomes clear to you. He is the One independent of any need from all other than Him, Perfect in all of What is attributed to Him, and that all other than Him is in need of Him.
If somebody says to you: “Allah rose above the Throne, does His rising above the Throne mean that He is in need of the Throne, such that if the Throne was removed, He would fall?” The answer is no! Never! Because Allah is Samad, perfect without need of the Throne. Rather the Throne, the heavens, the Kursi and all creatures are in need of Allah; He is independent of any need from them. We derive this from the word As-Samad.
If somebody asks: “Does Allah eat and drink?” I say: Never; because Allah is Samad.” With this, we recognize that the word As-Samad is a word that covers all the perfect Attributes of Allah, and it relates to all the imperfect attributes of the creatures. That is why the are in need of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime.
THE EFFECT OF KNOWING ALLAH IS AS-SAMAD
We should always be turning to Allah and we should realize the nature of the human being is that he is in state in which he is in need of his Creator and that we are not independent creatures rather we need Him while He does not need us. So we should realize our weakness and poverty before Allah Subhaanahu WataA’laa