This is only an introduction to the topic. This topic is vast and very important to understand. InshaaAllah I will heavily updated this section in future. As to what follows will suffice for now inshaaAllah.
In surah Al-Faatiha it is important to note that in verse ‘The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor’ when the blessings of Allah have been mentioned they have been mentioned in the 2nd person such that Allah is directly referred to (YOU). However in the next verse when ‘being astray/lost’ is mentioned, it is mentioned in the 3rd person such that Allah is not directly referred to, ‘nor of those who have went astray.” Why? Even though we know He is the One who decreed they would be astray. As proven by His sayings,
مَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ ۚ وَيَذَرُهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ
Whoever Allah sends astray – there is no guide for him and He leaves them in their transgression, wandering blindly» [A’RAAF:186]
and many other verses proving that guidance and misguidance is the sole responsibility of Allah.
This is a method that is used throughout the Quran and it is a way of showing respect to Allah and not attributing evil to Him as well as showing how belittled such people are.
Ibrahim عليه السلام said,
It is He who created me and it is He who guides me. It is He who feeds me and gives me to drink. When I am ill it is He who cures me. It is He who will cause me to die and then bring me back to life. I hope that He will forgive me my sin on the Day of Recompense» [asb-Shu’ard (26): 77-82]
So he عليه السلام attributed all aspects of perfection to Him in these actions but attributed to himself any [seeming] deficiency – So he said when I am ill. My sin. He didn’t say when He (Allah) makes me ill. Even though the One who decreed him to be ill is Allah but here Ibraheem عليه السلام is showing ADAB manners in not attributing illness to Allah.
Also in the hadith the DUA of Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم
اللّهُـمَّ لا سَـهْلَ إِلاّ ما جَعَلـتَهُ سَهـلاً، وَأَنْتَ تَجْـعَلُ الْحَـزَنَ إِذا شِـئْتَ سَهـْلاً
“O Allah, there is no ease except in that which You have made easy, and You make the difficulty, if You wish, easy.”
Notice the DUA does not say …’and that which You make difficult’.. Rather it says ‘the difficulty..’ As we have mentioned before, our sickness our sins, going astray our difficulties etc are a result/consequence of our own evil souls and disobedience to Him. But also notice the thing that is attributed to Allah in this DUA is ease. i.e goodness.
Again this concept was clearly expressed in the supplication of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) when he said,
I am completely at Your service and doing all I can to please You. All good is in Your Hands and evil does not pertain to You. [Muslim]
Ibn al-Qayyim explains; these words free Him (Allah) of any evil whatsoever being linked to His Essence, Attributes or Actions.
However it is possible that evil be contained in His creation as occurs in His words,
قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ
Say: I take refuge with the Lord of Daybreak. From the evil of what He created» [FALAQ: 1-2]
Contemplate the style of the Qur’an and see how sometimes it attaches evil to its cause and those who enact it such as His sayings,
وَالْكَافِرُونَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
The disbelievers are [truly] the oppressors and wrong-doers» [BAQARAH: 254]
وَمَا ظَلَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ كَانُوا هُمُ الظَّالِمِينَ
We did no injustice to them, rather it was they who were unjust, wrong-doers [Zukhruf:76]
Sometimes the subject [of the sentence] is omitted as in His sayings,
«…The path of those -whom You have favoured, not the path of those who have earned [Your] anger nor those who have gone astray» [FAATIHA: 7]
Hence He mentioned the favor adjoined to Himself, misguidance adjoined to those who committed it.
زُيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ حُبُّ الشَّهَوَاتِ
Beautified for people is the love of that which they desire» [IMRAAN: 14]
Omitted is the one who made it beautiful for them.
The difference between the sayings of Allah,
وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
Those who have been given the Book [BAQARAH: 101]
No mention who gave them the book. And when He praises He says,
الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِ أُولَٰئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ
Those to whom WE have given the Book [BAQARAH: 121]
So He mentioned Himself explicitly in those contexts in which He praises [the People of the Book] but omits His mention in those places that He censures them. This then, is one of the secrets of the [literary style] of the Qur’an.
Exactly the same applies to His sayings,
ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا
Then WE caused to inherit the Scripture those We have chosen of Our servants [FAATIR: 32]
فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ وَرِثُوا الْكِتَابَ يَأْخُذُونَ عَرَضَ هَٰذَا الْأَدْنَىٰ
And there followed them successors who inherited the Scripture while taking unlawful gains and pleasures in this lower life [A’RAAF: 169]
Therefore in conclusion only the good, wisdom and benefit is adjoined to Allah, Exalted is He, whereas evil does not pertain to him.